378
UNIT 3
Organ Systems
Ovulated
secondary oocyte
Corpus
albicans
Corpus luteum
Theca
Theca
lutein cells
lutein cells
Theca
lutein cells
Theca
Theca
lutein cells
lutein cells
Theca
lutein cells
Granulosa
Granulosa
lutein cells
lutein cells
Granulosa
lutein cells
Nuclei of granulosa
Nuclei of granulosa
lutein cells
lutein cells
Nuclei of granulosa
lutein cells
Cytoplasm of
Cytoplasm of
granulosa lutein cells
granulosa lutein cells
Cytoplasm of
granulosa lutein cells
Blood
Blood
vessels
vessels
Blood
vessels
Connective
Connective
tissue
tissue
Connective
tissue
A
Blood
Blood
vessels
vessels
Blood
vessels
Corpus albicans
Corpus albicans
Corpus albicans
Corpus albicans
Corpus albicans
Corpus albicans
B
Figure 19-7A.
Corpus luteum, ovary.
H&E,
3
36; insets
3
363
After ovulation, the remaining portion (wall) of the graaF
an
follicle transforms into the
corpus luteum (yellow body)
. The wall
of the corpus luteum is folded and contains
granulosa lutein cells
(derived from granulosa cells) and
theca lutein cells
(from the theca
interna). The
granulosa lutein cells
are large and have pale cyto-
plasm; these cells have features of steroid hormone–producing cells,
and they produce primarily
progesterone
. The
theca lutein cells
are
smaller but also have features of steroid hormone–secreting cells;
these cells secrete primarily progesterone and androgens.
Figure 19-7B.
Corpus albicans, ovary.
H&E,
3
34
In the absence of fertilization, the
corpus luteum
is active only for a
short period of time (10–14 days). The corpus luteum degenerates,
decreases in size, and forms a structure called the
corpus albicans
.
The corpus albicans consists of dense connective tissue that appears
as a white scar; it gradually decreases in size and remains in the ovary
for months to years. However, if fertilization and implantation occur,
the corpus luteum is rescued from degeneration by
human chorionic
gonadotropin (hCG) hormone
from the
placenta
. During pregnancy,
the corpus luteum will remain active for the F
rst 6 months of gesta-
tion, after which it degenerates, and the corpus albicans is formed.
±ormation of the corpus luteum is stimulated by the
LH surge
.
CLINICAL CORRELATION
Figure 19-7C.
Granulosa Cell Tumor.
H&E,
3
52
Granulosa cell tumor
of the ovary is a
neoplasm
composed of ovar-
ian granulosa and, occasionally, theca cells. Granulosa cell tumors
may arise at any age and are divided into
juvenile
and
adult
types.
These tumors may produce excess
estrogen
, the result of which
may cause
precocious puberty
,
endometrial hyperplasia
, and
endo-
metrial cancer
. Symptoms may include abdominal pain,
hemoperi-
toneum
with hypotension, and mimicking an ectopic pregnancy in
younger patients because of rupture of the tumor. Histologically,
the tumor cells are small and cuboidal, and may be arranged in a
variety of patterns including solid, trabecular, and cordlike. The
tumor cells often contain a groove resembling a coffee bean. Small
follicle-like structures named
Call-Exner bodies
may be visible in
well-differentiated tumors. The behavior of granulosa cell tumors
is variable and may take an aggressive course in some patients.
A total
abdominal hysterectomy
and
bilateral salpingo-oophorec-
tomy
are the treatments of choice in the early stage.
Granulosa cell
tumor with
neoplastic
cells arranged
in cords
C
previous page 393 Dongmei Cui -  Atlas of Histology with Functional and Clinical Correlations 2011 read online next page 395 Dongmei Cui -  Atlas of Histology with Functional and Clinical Correlations 2011 read online Home Toggle text on/off