372
UNIT 3
Organ Systems
Figure 19-1.
Overview of the female reproductive system.
The
female reproductive system
functions in reproduction and the secretion of female hormones that maintain female sex character-
istics. It consists of two
ovaries
, two
oviducts
, the
uterus
, the
vagina
,
external genitalia
, and two
mammary glands
. Each
ovary
has
a
medulla
and
cortex
that contain different stages of the
developing follicles, corpus luteum
, and
corpus albicans
. The
oviduct
is a
muscular tube, which captures and transports the ovulated oocyte and functions as the normal site of fertilization. It can be divided
into the
infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus
, and
intramural portions
. The
uterus
is a thick-walled chamber that can be divided into three
regions: the
fundus
,
body
, and
cervix
. The
fundus
and
body
of the uterus are composed of
endometrium
,
myometrium
, and
serosa
; the
endometrium undergoes extensive changes during the menstrual cycle. The mucosa of the
cervix
does not undergo structural changes
during the menstrual cycle; however, secretions of the mucosa change based on hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. Most of the
female organs undergo some degree of change during the menstrual cycle in response to changes in levels of various hormones.
Ovulated
oocyte
Fimbriae
Ovary
Corpus
albicans
Medulla
Cortex
Corpus
luteum
Follicles
Infundibulum
Isthmus
Intramural
portion
Ampulla
Oviduct (fallopian tube)
Uterus
Endometrium
Myometrium
Fundus
Oviduct (fallopian tube)
Ovary
Ligament
of ovary
Cervix
Vagina
Broad ligament
Body
Perimetrium
I.
Ovaries
A. Cortex
(contains ovarian follicles and connective
tissue)
1. Primordial (resting) follicles
2. Primary (growing) follicles
3. Secondary (antral) follicles
4. GraaF
an follicle
5. Corpus luteum (postovulatory structure)
6. Corpus albicans (postovulatory structure)
B.
Medulla
(contains loose connective tissue, blood vessels,
lymphatic vessels, and nerve F
bers)
II.
Oviducts/fallopian tubes
(contain mucosa, muscularis, and
serosa)
A. Infundibulum
B. Ampulla
C. Isthmus
D. Intramural portion
III. Uterus
(contains endometrium, myometrium, and serosa)
A. Menstrual cycle
1. Proliferative phase
2. Secretory phase
3. Menstrual phase
IV.
Cervix
(contains mucosa, branched cervical glands, dense
connective tissue, and a few smooth muscle cells)
A. Internal os
(opening of cervix)
B.
Endocervical canal
(portion between uterus and
external os)
C. External os
(opening of ectocervix)
D. Ectocervix
(portion that projects into the vagina)
V. Vagina
(contains mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia)
VI. Mammary gland
A. Compound tubuloalveolar glands
B. Lactiferous sinuses
C. Lactiferous ducts
D. Nipple
Structures of the Female Reproductive System
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