CHAPTER 17
Endocrine System
343
Gland Name
Hormone
producing Cells
Hormone Produced
Target Tissues and
Organs
Main Functions
Pituitary Glands
Adenohypophysis
(anterior pituitary)
Acidophils
:
Somatotrophs
Mammotrophs
Growth hormone
Somatotropin
Prolactin
Liver (primary); bone,
muscle, and adipose tissue
(secondary)
Mammary gland
Stimulate body growth
Stimulate mammary glands to produce
milk
Basophils
:
Corticotrophs
Thyrotrophs
Gonadotrophs
ACTH and
corticotropin
TSH
FSH
LH
Adrenal cortex
Thyroid gland
Ovaries
Testes
Stimulate secretion of glucocorticoids and
androgens
T
3
and T
4
Stimulate oocytes to develop and promote
estrogen secretion
Stimulate testes to produce sperm
Neurohypophysis
(posterior pituitary)
Neurosecretory
cells from
hypothalamus
Vasopressin/ADH
Oxytocin
Collecting tubules of
kidney; smooth muscle in
arterioles
Uterus, mammary gland
Promote collecting tubules’ permeability
to water
Stimulate contraction of uterus and
mammary gland
Thyroid Gland
Follicular cells
Parafollicular cells
T
3
and T
4
Calcitonin
Most tissues of body
Bone
Increase metabolic rate; infl uence body
growth and development
Inhibit osteoclasts’ absorption activity and
reduce blood calcium level
Parathyroid Gland
Chief cells
PTH
Bone; small intestine;
kidney
Increase osteoclasts’ absorption activity and
increase blood calcium level
Adrenal Gland
Adrenal cortex
Secretory cells in
zona glomerulosa
Secretory cells in
zona fasciculata
Secretory cells in
zona reticularis
Mineralocorticoids
(aldosterone)
Glucocorticoids (cortisol
or hydrocortisone;
corticosterone)
Weak androgens
(dehydroepiandrosterone,
androstenedione)
Renal tubules of the
kidney
Liver; immune cells (such
as T and B lymphocytes
and macrophages); muscle
and adipose tissue
Testes; uterine and
mammary glands; other
tissue, such as bone, hair,
etc.
Infl uence salt and water balance by
promoting renal tubule reabsorption of
Na
+
and water and secretion of K
+
Involved in carbohydrate metabolism
and stimulation of gluconeogenesis in
the liver; immunosuppressive; reduces
muscle and adipose tissue uptake of
glucose
As weak androgens, can be converted to
either testosterone or estrogen; contribute
to sex characteristics and reproduction
Adrenal medulla
ChromafF n cells
:
Adrenaline
secreting cells
Noradrenaline
secreting cells
Adrenaline (epinephrine)
Noradrenaline
(norepinephrine)
Heart; blood vessel; liver
and adipocytes
Increase heart rate and cardiac output;
constrict blood vessels in organs and
increase blood fl ow to heart and to
skeletal muscle
Increase release of glucose and fatty acids
into blood; dilate pupils, and prepare body
for action.
Pineal Gland
Pinealocytes
Melatonin
Serotonin
Hypothalamus
Regulate circadian rhythms; promote sleep
and control sexual activity; enhance mood
and slow the aging process
Endocrine Pancreas
Alpha
Beta,
Delta
PP cells
Glucagon
Insulin
Somatostatin
Pancreatic polypeptide
Liver; gastric glands;
exocrine pancreas
Regulate blood glucose levels; stimulate
gastric gland secretion; inhibit exocrine
pancreatic secretion
ACTH, adenocorticotropic hormone; TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone; ADH, antidiuretic
hormone; T
3
, triiodothyrodine; T
4
, thyroxine; PTH, parathyroid hormone; PP cells, pancreatic polypeptide cells.
TABLE 17-1
Endocrine Organs
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