CHAPTER 15
Digestive Tract
289
Figure 15-7A.
Cardiac region, esophagogastric junction.
H&E,
3
34; insets (
left
)
3
192, (
right
)
3
331
The inner surface of the stomach is lined by
columnar epithelium
,
which forms a secretory sheath and is composed of mucus- secreting
cells called
surface mucous cells
. These cells cover the entire inner
surface of the stomach and also line the surface of the
gastric pits
.
The gastric pits are invaginations of the epithelium and are sur-
rounded by the lamina propria. This is an example of the
cardiac
region
of the stomach at the
esophagogastric junction
. The lamina
propria (loose connective tissue) contains
cardiac glands
. These
glands are
branched tubular glands
(see Fig. 3-22A,B) and are
composed of mucus-secreting cells. The secretions of the cardiac
glands empty directly into the gastric pits. The cardiac glands con-
sist of
mucous cells
, which are similar in appearance to the surface
mucous cells. They have basally positioned nuclei and lightly stain-
ing cytoplasm.
Mucus-secreting cells
Mucus-secreting cells
of cardiac glands
of cardiac glands
Mucus-secreting cells
of cardiac glands
E
s
o
p
h
a
g
u
s
Esophagus
Gastric
Gastric
pits
pits
Gastric
pits
Cardiac
Cardiac
glands
glands
Cardiac
glands
Surface
Surface
mucous cells
mucous cells
Surface
mucous cells
S
to
t
o
m
a
c
h
Stomach
A
Figure 15-7B.
Fundic region of the stomach.
H&E,
3
51;
insets
3
245
The surface of the
fundus region
of the stomach is covered by
surface mucous cells,
which produce mucus to protect the epi-
thelium from the acidic gastric juice. The fundic glands in the
lamina propria are different from the cardiac glands but similar
to the glands in the body of the stomach. Fundic glands con-
tain
stem cells, mucous neck cells
(Fig. 15-7C),
parietal cells,
and
chief cells.
The
stem cells
can differentiate into other types of
cells in the glands. The
parietal cells
are large, round cells with
centrally positioned nuclei (“fried-egg” appearance). Their cyto-
plasm stains paler than that of chief cells. The parietal cells are
more numerous in the superior half of the fundic glands (
upper
inset
). The
chief cells
are small, columnar cells and have darkly
stained cytoplasm. Their nuclei are commonly located at the base
of the cells. The chief cells are more numerous in the inferior half
of the fundic glands (
lower inset
).
Muscularis
Muscularis
mucosae
mucosae
Muscularis
Muscularis
mucosae
mucosae
Muscularis
mucosae
Muscularis
mucosae
Chief cells
Chief cells
Chief cells
M
u
c
o
s
a
Mucosa
Fundic
Fundic
glands
glands
Fundic
glands
Gastric
Gastric
pits
pits
Gastric
pits
Epithelium
Epithelium
(mucous
(mucous
surface cells)
surface cells)
Epithelium
(mucous
surface cells)
Parietal
Parietal
cells
cells
Parietal
cells
B
Figure 15-7C.
Body region of the stomach.
H&E,
3
34; insets (
left
)
3
232; (
right upper
)
3
164; (
right
lower
)
3
394
Histologically, the
body
and fundus of the stomach are
similar to one another, and their glands are identical.
They are called
fundic (gastric) glands
. The
mucous
neck cells
are commonly found between the parietal
cells at the neck region of the gastric glands. They secrete
acidic mucus
. The
parietal cells
secrete large quanti-
ties of
HCl
and
gastric IF
. The parietal cells are also
called
oxyntic
(
acid-forming
)
cells
. The
chief cells
are
often called
zymogenic
or
peptic cells
; their cytoplasm
contains
zymogen granules
. They secrete
pepsinogen
and precursors of
rennin
and
lipase
.
Enteroendocrine
cells
may also be found at the neck and base of the
gastric glands. They release endocrine molecules (e.g.,
serotonin, gastrin, histamine). These cells are similar
in appearance to the enteroendocrine cells in the small
intestine (see Fig. 15-13B). Stem cells may also be
found at neck regions of the gastric glands.
Submucosa
Submucosa
Submucosa
Lamina
Lamina
propria
propria
Lamina
propria
M
u
c
o
s
a
Mucosa
Fundic
Fundic
glands
glands
Fundic
glands
Muscularis mucosae
Lumen
Lumen
Lumen
Gastric
Gastric
pits
pits
Gastric
pits
Surface
Surface
mucous cells
mucous cells
Surface
mucous cells
Mucous neck cell
Mucous neck cell
Mucous neck cell
Parietal cells
Parietal cells
Parietal cells
Chief cell
Chief cell
Chief cell
Chief cell
C
previous page 304 Dongmei Cui -  Atlas of Histology with Functional and Clinical Correlations 2011 read online next page 306 Dongmei Cui -  Atlas of Histology with Functional and Clinical Correlations 2011 read online Home Toggle text on/off