158
UNIT 3
Organ Systems
T. Yang
Large veins (vena cava)
Large (pulmonary) veins
Large arteries (pulmonary artery)
Large arteries
Aorta
Arterioles
Arterioles
Small arteries
Small arteries
RA
LA
RV
LV
:
right atrium
:
left atrium
:
right ventricle
:
left ventricle
M
edium
arteries
Medium
arteries
Pulmonary circulation
Systemic circulation
Medium veins
Medium veins
Small veins
Small veins
Venules
Venules
Deoxygenated blood in pulmonary circulation system
Oxygenated blood in pulmonary circulation system
Oxygenated blood in systemic circulation system
Deoxygenated blood in systemic circulation system
Systemic circulation system
Organs and
tissues of the body
Lungs
RA
LA
LV
RV
Pulmonary
capillaries
Systemic
capillaries
Pulmonary circulation system
Left
ventricle
Right
ventricle
Small arteries
Small arteries
Arterioles
Arterioles
Venules
Venules
Small
veins
Small
veins
Medium
veins
Medium
veins
Large veins
(vena cava, etc.)
Large veins
(pulmonary veins)
Right
atrium
Left
atrium
Systemic capillaries
(exchange of gases
and other substances)
Pulmonary capillaries
(gas exchange)
Large/elastic arteries
(aorta, etc.)
Large/elastic arteries
(pulmonary arteries)
Medium systemic
arteries (muscular arteries)
Medium pulmonary
arteries (muscular arteries)
Pulmonary circulation system
Systemic circulation system
Figure 9-1.
Overview of the cardiovascular system.
The
cardiovascular system
consists of the
heart
,
arterial system
,
venous system
, and
capillary system
. The
heart
is composed of two
atria
and two
ventricles
. The
right atrium
receives blood from the body, and the
left atrium
receives blood from the lungs; the
left
ventricle
pumps blood to the body, and the
right ventricle
pumps blood to the lungs. The
arterial system
conducts blood from the
heart to capillaries in the body and the lungs. This system includes large arteries (elastic arteries), medium arteries (muscular arter-
ies), small arteries, and arterioles. The
venous system
carries blood from the capillary system in the body and lungs to the heart.
It includes venules, small veins, medium veins, and large veins. The
capillary system
is located between arterioles and venules and
often forms capillary beds where exchange of gases and various substances and movement of blood cells (
diapedesis
) take place. It
includes
continuous
,
fenestrated
, and
sinusoidal (discontinuous) capillaries
. Blood fl ows through two routes: (1) the
systemic circu-
lation system
, which supplies oxygenated blood from the heart to the organs and tissues of the body and then carries deoxygenated
blood back to the heart and (2) the
pulmonary circulation system
, which sends deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs for
gas exchange and then returns oxygenated blood to the heart.
Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation Systems
The Cardiovascular System
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