Submucosal plexus (of Meissner).
) are located in the
submucosal layer of the intestine (see Chapter 15, “Diges-
tive Tract”). These plexuses are similar to the myen-
teric plexuses in that they are unencapsulated clusters
parasympathetic postganglionic motor neurons
, which receive input from chemoreceptors
and mechanoreceptors in the intestinal wall; and
). The postganglionic motor
neurons may innervate smooth muscle to either increase
or decrease muscle activity and may also innervate secre-
tory cells in the walls of the intestine.
Pathological and Clinical Terms for the Nervous System
: Inability to coordinate the muscles properly in the execution of a voluntary movement.
: The multiplication of astrocytes as a response to injury in the brain, as exempliF
ed by the feltwork of astrocytic
cell bodies and processes in a demyelinated plaque of MS.
Glomeruloid vascular structures
: Complex arrays of capillaries that resemble the glomeruli of a kidney, are another
hallmark of the glioblastoma.
: The helical arrangement of abnormally phosphorylated neuroF
laments found in many
and cortical neurons of an Alzheimer patient.
: A disease involving the cranial or spinal nerves.
: After repeated cycles of demyelination and remyelination, thin layers of Schwann cell cytoplasm form
concentric circles around a central axon. The appearance of the structure resembles a cross section of an onion bulb and
its nested leaves.
: The alignment of viable tumor cells at the edge of a necrotic focus in glioblastoma, a diagnostic hallmark of
this grade 4 (most malignant) astrocytoma, a family of glial tumors derived from the astrocyte.
: This word indicates a lesion, in several pathological contexts. (1) An atherosclerotic plaque is the hard, calciF
buildup of fatty material in large arteries, such as the coronary arteries or aorta. (2) A neuritic plaque is the extracellular
knot of phosphorylated axons and dendrites, often with a central deposit of amyloid protein, found in great numbers
in brains of patients with Alzheimer disease. (3) In MS, a demyelinated plaque is an irregular zone of axons, often in a
periventricular location, that have lost their sheaths of myelin.
Type of Ganglion
Arranged into groups
within ganglion, cell
bodies variable in size
Round cell body,
Complete capsule of
uniform in size
Multipolar cell body,
Incomplete capsule of
Comparison of Posterior Root and Autonomic Ganglia