Long, cylindrical, unbranched
Short, branched, anastomosing
Short, spindle shaped
Multiple, peripheral in cell
Single, central in cell
Single, central in cell
Gap (nexus) junctions
Highly developed; has terminal
Less well developed; small cisterns
Present, but poorly developed
Yes, satellite cells
Initiated by nerve action potential
Spontaneous; pacemaker system;
modulated by nervous system and
Spontaneous; modulated by
nervous system and hormones
Voluntary movement of limbs, digits,
face, tongue, and other muscles
pumps blood to muscles and
organs; modulated by physiological
and emotional factors
Involuntary control of blood
vessel diameter, gut peristalsis,
uterine contractions during
childbirth, airway diameter, and
Pathological and Histological Terms for Muscle
: To join end to end, as in suturing two blood vessels together (Fig. 6-8A).
: A condition in which an individual’s immune system mistakes the individual’s own tissue for a for-
eign invader and attacks the tissue, as in myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis (Fig. 6-6C).
: Small, cup-shaped indentations in the sarcolemma of smooth muscle cells; may be involved in the uptake of
calcium during contraction (Figs. 6-12 and 6-13).
: A large, rod-shaped protein that plays a critical role in connecting the molecular contractile mechanism of
skeletal muscle to the surrounding extracellular matrix so that the force of the actin-myosin contraction can be transferred
to other structures to do useful work. The lack of dystrophin is a key feature of some types of muscular dystrophies
: Abnormal formation of connective tissue, including ±
broblasts and connective tissue ±
bers, to replace normal
tissues in response to tissue damage caused by disease or injury (Fig. 6-3C).
: Abnormal proliferation of cells, which may or may not lead to the increase in the size of the affected structure
or organ; may be a precancerous condition (Fig. 6-6C).
: An increase in the size of a structure produced by an increase in the size of the cells that make up the
: Structures, particularly muscle ±
bers, that are found inside the muscle spindle. The word is derived from the
” which means “spindle” (Fig. 6-7A).
: Pathologic death of cells or tissues as a result of irreversible damage because of disease or injury (Fig. 6-3C).
: The small space between a presynaptic axon terminal and the postsynaptic membrane of a muscle cell or a
neuron upon which the axon forms a synapse (Figs. 6-6B,C).
: A local swelling in a tubelike structure such as an axon (Fig. 6-10A).